E-ISSN 2537-0596 | ISSN 2537-0588

J Cancer and Biomedical Research (J-CBR)

An International and interdisciplinary journal of preclinical and clinical studies in the area of cancer and biomedical researches

Last updated May 2017



JCBR – an International and interdisciplinary journal of preclinical and clinical studies in the area of cancer and biomedical researches - is a peer-reviewed journal in English, published bimonthly by the Egyptian Association for Cancer Research (EACR) in both print and online formats (6 issues making a volume). Special issues or supplements may also be produced from time to time upon agreement with the Editorial Board.

JCBR attracts the best research in animal and human biology in health and diseases from across the spectrum of the biomedical and environmental sciences and all related aspects of the life sciences at the molecular, cellular, organ, and whole animal. It is essential reading for all scientists interested in biochemistry, cancer, microbiology, nutrition, physiology, modelling, genetics, behavior, immunology, epidemiology, economics, sociology, food science and technology, human health, environmental impact on health.

Papers will be considered in aspects of both strategic and applied science in the areas of all aspects of Preclinical and clinical cancer research, Physiology and Functional Biology of Systems, Behavior, Health and Welfare, and Environment, Human Health and Well-being. Emphasis is placed on the integrative nature of biological systems. The use of laboratory animal models is within the scope. Papers dealing with the translation of basic and strategic science into whole animal, the environment and humans (health, nutrition and well-being) will be welcome, as are methodology papers. Papers should be of international relevance, appeal to an international readership and not limited to national or regional conditions.

General specifications for different types of article

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, except in a limited form (e.g. short communication to a symposium or as part of MSc or PhD theses) and should not be under consideration for publication by other journals.

All co-authors should agree with the content of the manuscript. Authors must have obtained permission to use any copyrighted material in the manuscript prior to submission. The work described in the ANM September 2016 page 2 manuscript must comply

JCBR publishes different types of articles:

Research articles

They correspond to a full account of a complete project. The approach can be experimental or theoretical, provided the work has been carried out in a systematic way. Routine studies, descriptive experiments without an experimental design controlled by the author, papers based on repetition of published experiments with other breeds, or in other geographical conditions are discouraged. Articles presenting a detailed description of a new technique are within the scope. Comparison of existing methods is considered, provided similar comparisons have never been published. Research articles, including meta-analyses, should be comprehensive and should include an in-depth discussion. Papers in a numbered series are not accepted unless all are submitted at the same time.

Short communications

Short communications present exceptionally exciting, novel or timely contents. JCBR publishes a limited number of short communications. Their submission will only be accepted based on Editor’s judgment, and they will be peer-reviewed in the same way as research papers. Partial data or complete studies with a limited amount of results will not be considered as short communications, and will be handled as research papers.

Review articles

They are invited by the Editorial Board or unsolicited. Review articles have to be contemporary and comprehensive, and add information to published reviews on the same topic; if not the case, they will be rejected immediately by the Editor-in-Chief. Sharp critical analyses of novel data or concepts are encouraged. When relevant, a statistical analysis of data and a meta-analysis approach are recommended (but meta-analyses only are not considered as review articles). Authors of unsolicited review articles are encouraged to question the Editorial Office prior to submission through EACR@unv.tanta.edu.eg to ask if their paper is within the scope and of interest to the journal.

Invited Opinion papers

They are submitted by invitation of the Management Board only and are published as open access papers. They are short papers, which aim to inform scientists, industry, and the public and policy makers about cutting-edge issues in research or the impact of research. They reflect the opinion of their authors who bear full responsibility of the published paper.

Conference/Symposium papers

The journal will consider for publication the results of original work and critical reviews that are presented at conferences/symposia. Symposium organizers who wish to publish bundles of papers from a symposium/conference in JCBR should first contact the Editor-in-Chief of the JCBR (EACR@unv.tanta.edu.eg) for agreement and information on the management of these papers. If the papers do not fit the requested conditions for publication in JCBR.

Specifications for the different types of article

Original research 7 000 words (equivalent to 9 pages in journal)

Short communications 3 000 words

Reviews 9 500 words (equivalent to 12 journal pages)

Opinion papers 1700 words (equivalent to 2 journal pages) or 1200 if a figure is submitted

Supplementary material can be proposed and will be made available online. The responsibility for the preparation of a paper in a form suitable for publication lies with the author.

Before submitting your manuscript, we strongly recommend that you consult the pre-submission checklist. Manuscripts that do not comply with the directions or that are too long will not be accepted for peer-review. This will ensure that they are judged at peer review exclusively on academic merit. Any deviations from these recommendations will be at the discretion of the Editor-in Chief.


A good quality of written English is required. Spelling may be in British or American English but must be consistent throughout the paper. Care should be exercised in the use of biological terminology that is ill-defined or of local familiarity only. If the English is not good enough, the manuscript will be sent back to the authors. We recommends that authors have their manuscripts checked by an English language native speaker before submission. We list a number of third-party services specializing in language editing and / or translation.

Manuscript layout

Manuscripts should be prepared using a standard word processing program, and presented in a clear readable format with easily identified sections and headings.

Manuscript layout directions

• Typed with double-line spacing with wide margins (2.5 cm)

• The lines must be continuously numbered; the pages must also be numbered

• Font Arial 12 should be used for the text, and Arial 11 for tables and references

• The sections should typically be assembled in the following order: Title, Authors, Authors' full affiliations including department and post/zip codes, Corresponding author, Short title, Abstract, Keywords, Implications, Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, List of figure captions

• The use of small paragraphs with less than 6 to 8 lines must be avoided

• Footnotes in the main text are to be avoided

• The title needs to be concise and informative. It should: (a) arrest the attention of a potential reader scanning a journal or a list of titles; (b) provide sufficient information to allow the reader to judge the relevance of a paper to his/her interests; (c) incorporate keywords or phrases that can be used in indexing and information retrieval, especially the animal species on which the experiment has been carried out; (d) avoid inessentials such as ‘A detailed study of ...’, or ‘Contribution to ...’; (e) not include the name of the country or of the region where the experiment took place; (f) not include Latin names if there is a common name, or abbreviations. Full title directions

• No more than 170 characters including spaces

• Include "Review:", "Invited review:" or "JCBR board invited review:" before the full title if required (see above)

• The title of an invited opinion paper should start with "Opinion paper:"

• The title of a short communication should start with "Short communication:"

Corresponding author:

The corresponding author who submits and manages the manuscript during the submission/review process will need to be registered on Editorial Manager. He or she can be different from the corresponding author indicated in the manuscript who will be the correspondent for the published paper.

Short title (max 50 characters including spacing)

Authors should provide a short title (after the corresponding author line) with the same specifications as the full title for use as a running head. If the short title is not appropriate, it could be modified by the Editorial Office, with the author’s agreement.

Abstract (max 400 words, single paragraph)

The abstract should be complete and understandable without reference to the paper. It is important to attract the attention of potential readers. The context and the rationale of the study are presented succinctly to support the objectives. The experimental methods and main results are summarized but should not be overburdened by numerical values or probability values. The abstract ends with a short and clear conclusion. Citations, references to tables and figures are not acceptable. Abbreviations used in the abstract have to be defined in the abstract.


Keywords are essential in information retrieval and should complement the title with respect to indicating the subject of the paper.

Keyword directions

• Five keywords

• Keywords should be short and specific

• If not in the title, the animal species or type is among the keywords

• The use of non-standard abbreviations in the list of keywords is discouraged

Implications (max 100 words)

Implications must explain the expected impact that the results may have on practice when they will be applied. Impact may be economic, environmental and/or social. Implications should not be limited to presenting the context and objectives, and should not be an "abstract of the abstract". This is written in simple English suitable for non-specialists or even non science readers. The use of non-standard abbreviations is discouraged.


The introduction briefly outlines the context of the work, presents the current issues that the authors are addressing and the rationale to support the objectives, and clearly defines the objectives. For hypothesis driven research, the hypothesis under test should be clearly stated. Increasing the knowledge on a subject is not an objective per se.

Material and methods

Material and methods should be described in sufficient detail so that it is possible for others to repeat the experiment. Reference to previously published work may be used to give methodological details, provided that said publications are readily accessible and in English. If a proprietary product is used as a source of material in experimental comparisons, this should be described using the appropriate chemical name. If the trade name is helpful to the readers, provide it in parentheses after the first mention. Authors who have worked with proprietary products, including equipment, should ensure that the manufacturers or suppliers of these products have no objections to publication if the products, for the purpose of experimentation, were not used according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Statistical analysis of results

The statistical analysis of results should be presented in a separate sub-section of the "Material and methods" section. The statistical design and the models of statistical analysis must be described, as well as each of the statistical methods used. Sufficient statistical details must be given to allow replication of the statistical analysis. The experimental unit should be defined (e.g. individual animal, group of animals). Generally, an analysis of variance is preferred to a simple t-test.

Statistics directions

• In the text, the level of significance attained is indicated by the following conventional standard abbreviations (which need not be defined): P > 0.05 for non-significance and P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 for significance at these levels. Exact level of statistical significance (e.g. P = 0.07) can also be used

• When data are analyzed by analysis of variance, a residual error term, such as the pooled standard error, the residual standard deviation (RSD) or the root mean square error (RMSE) is given for each criteria/item/variable/trait in a separate column (or line)

• In tables, statistical significance is indicated in a separate column. The P values (e.g. P = 0.07) are reported or levels of significance are indicated by *, ** and *** for P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively

• In tables, differences between treatments (or comparison of mean values) are indicated using superscript letters with the following conventional standard: a, b for P < 0.05; A, B for P < 0.01; in most cases, the 0.05 level is sufficient

Results - Discussion

Separation between Results and Discussion is preferred to highlight the interpretation of results. Presentation of Results and Discussion in a single section is possible but discouraged.


In this section, the authors may acknowledge (briefly) their support staff, their funding sources (with research funder and/or grant number), their credits to companies or copyrighted material, etc. All papers with a potential conflict of interest must include a description/explanation under the Acknowledgements heading.


Citations from international refereed journals or from national refereed journals with at least an English abstract are highly preferred. Citations should be as "international" as possible. Citations from abstracts/conference proceedings, MSc or PhD thesis, and technical documents, not English documents which cannot easily be obtained by the reader or which are not peer-reviewed should be minimized. In general, no more than 3 references can be given for the same statement (except for reviews and met analyses).

Citation of references.

In the text, references should be cited by the author(s) surname(s) and the year of publication (e.g. Smith, 2017). References with two authors should be cited with both surnames (e.g. Smith and Wright, 2017). References with three or more authors should be cited with the first author followed by et al. (in italics; e.g. Smith et al.). Multiple references from the same author(s) should be as follows: Wright et al. (2016 and 2017), Wright et al. (2017a and 2017b). Names of organizations used as authors (e.g. Food and Drug Administration) should be written out in full in the list of references and on first mention in the text. Subsequent mentions may be abbreviated (e.g. FDA).

"Personal communication" or "unpublished results" should follow the name of the author in the text where appropriate. The author’s initials but not his title should be included, and such citations are not needed in the reference list. In-text citation directions

• References are cited by the name(s) of author(s) and the year of publication

• Use Doe (2014) or (Doe, 2014) for single authors

• Use Doe and Smith (2014) or (Doe and Smith, 2014) for two authors • Use Doe et al. (2014) or (Doe et al., 2014) for three or more authors

• "et al." is in italics

• When multiple references are cited, rank them preferably by chronological order using commas and semicolons: (Doe, 1999; Smith and Doe, 2001; Doe et al., 2014 and 2015) List of references. Literature cited should be listed in alphabetical order by authors' names and references should not be numbered. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that all references are correct. Journal article directions

• References from journal articles are formatted as follows: Author A, Author B, Author CD and Author E Year. Article title. Full Name of the Journal Volume, first-last page numbers.

• No punctuation (i.e. no comma or full stop or semicolon) between the surname and initials of an author, after initials, before publication years, after journal names and before volume numbers

• Include "and" (without comma) before the last author for multiple author references

• All authors’ names are provided, do not use “et al.” in the reference list

• Publication years are included after the author list without parentheses

• No capitals for article titles except initial capital of the first word and words that ordinarily take capitals

• All journal names are given in full (not in abbreviated form) and the initial letter of all main words is capitalized (except little words such as "and", "of, "in", "the", etc.), e.g. Journal of Animal Science

• Issue numbers are not mentioned

• Use "," (not ";") before page numbers

• Page numbers are given in full (e.g. "1488-1496" not "1488-96") Book directions

• References from books or official reports are formatted as follows: Author(s)/Editor(s)/Institution Year. Book title, volume number if more than 1, edition if applicable. Publisher’s name, City, State (2-letter abbreviation) for US places, Country.

• The list of author or editor name(s) and publication years are written as for journal articles (all authors are provided; commas between authors; "and" before the last author where there are two or more authors; full stops after publication years) Example o Author A, Author B, Author CD and Author E Year.

• No capitals for book titles except initial capital of the first word and words that ordinarily take capitals

• Detailed publisher information is given and listed as: Publisher’s name, City, State (2-letter abbreviation) for US places, Country. Please note – if a publisher is based in more than one place, use only the first one. If multiple publishers are list, it is acceptable to use only the first one. Examples: AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. FAO, Rome, Italy. Book chapter directions

• References from chapters or parts of books are formatted as follows: Author A, Author B, Author CD and Author E Year. Chapter title. In Title of book (ed. A Editor and B Editor), pp. first-last page numbers. Publisher’s name, City, State (2- letter abbreviation) for US places, Country. Example: Nozière P and Hoch T 2006. Modelling fluxes of volatile fatty acids from rumen to portal blood. In Nutrient digestion and utilization in farm animals (ed. E Kebreab, J ANM September 2016 page 8 Dijkstra, A Bannink, WJJ Gerrits and J France), pp. 40–47. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.


• Conference dates are provided in the format: DD Month YYYY, e.g. 10 August 2014 • Conference locations are given and listed as: City, State (2-letter abbreviation) for US places, Country.


• Web-page addresses are provided Thesis directions

• References from theses are formatted as follows: Author AB Year. Thesis title. Type of thesis, University with English name, location of the University (i.e. City, State (2-letter abbreviation) for US places, Country). Example: Vlaeminck B 2006. Milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids: indicators of rumen digestion for optimization of dairy cattle feeding. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. The author’s name and publication year are written as for journal articles (no punctuation between surname and initials; full stops after publication years) Example o Author AB Year. No capitals for thesis titles except initial capital of the first word and words that ordinarily take capitals Degree levels are provided, e.g. PhD, MSc, etc. • University names and locations are given and listed as: University name, City, State (2-letter abbreviation) for US places, Country. Examples: o Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. o Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.


Tables should be as simple as possible. The same material should not be presented in tabular and graphical form. An indication is given in the text where the table should be inserted.

Table directions

• Each table is on a separate page at the end of the main text (one table per page)

 Tables are typed, preferably in double spacing. Single spacing is possible for long tables

• Tables are numbered consecutively using Arabic numbering. They are referred to as Table 1, Table 2, etc., with capital ‘T’, no italics

• Each table has its own explanatory caption. The caption is sufficient to permit the table to be understood without reference to the text. The animal species and the experimental treatments or the issue under study are indicated in each caption. The caption does not contain too many details about the protocol or the results

• Tables are created in Word using the table function within the program (without using tabs). Layout can be portrait or landscape

• Large tables are discouraged in the manuscript but they may be submitted as Supplementary Material

• No vertical lines between columns and no horizontal lines between rows of data • Generally, variables are in rows and treatments in columns • Column headings are concise

• Separate columns are included to present the basic statistical results: error terms (preferably residual error terms) and levels of significance

• Row items are organized with main items followed by indented sub-items in order, for instance, to group the criteria which share the same type of measurements or the same unit

• For any (sub-)item, only the first letter of the first word is in capitals • Units are clearly stated either in the caption (only if a limited number of units are used), or for each (sub-)item. Standard abbreviations for units are used

• Footnotes are referenced using superscript numbers

• All abbreviations used in a table are defined as footnotes (preferred option) or in the ANM September 2016 page 10 caption

• Treatment means are reported with meaningful decimals. For guidance, the last digit corresponds to 1/10 of standard error

• The number of decimals for the indicators of residual variability (RSD, SEM, RMSE etc.) are either identical to that chosen for mean values or have one more decimal. The choice is consistent in all the tables

• See above (Statistics) for the presentation of statistical results in tables


Figures should be as simple as possible. The same material should not be presented in tabular and graphical form. An indication is given in the text where the figure should be inserted. Specific guidelines are provided for images (see Image Integrity and Standards).

Figure directions

• Figure captions are all listed on the same page at the end of the main text

• All figures are numbered consecutively in the text. They are referred to as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc., the word ‘Figure’ being spelled out with capital ‘F’, no italics

• Captions begin as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. They are sufficiently detailed to allow the figure to be understood without reference to the text ("Figure 1 Effect of fat source and animal breed on carcass composition in pigs" is preferred to "Figure 1 Carcass composition"). The animal species and the experimental treatments or the issue under study are indicated in each caption. Abbreviations used in each figure have to be defined in the caption and kept to a minimum

• Figures are not inserted in the text. Each figure (without caption) is uploaded separately with one separate file per figure and no embedded captions in these files

• Figure size should be readable in a width of approximately 175 mm (i.e. the maximum size of printing over two columns). Easy reading of the figure is required

• Ensure that the font size is large enough to be clearly readable at the final print size (should not be less than 8 point, or 2.8 mm, after reduction). We recommend you use the following fonts: Arial, Courier, Symbol, Times, Times New Roman and ensure that they are consistent throughout the figures. In addition, ensure that any fonts used to create or label figures are embedded if the application provides that option

• Symbols and line types should allow different elements to be easily distinguished (generally, solid symbols are used before open symbols, and continuous lines before dotted or dashed lines)

• Figures are usually supplied as black and white

• Colors can be used in figures if they are essential to understanding the figure. Publication charges are made for color figures.

• If figures are to be printed in color, use CMYK (instead of RGB) color mode preferably

• The figures should preferably be provided as TIFF or EPS files. Other formats such as MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, AI and layered PSD (up to CS3) are permitted, provided that figures have been originally created in these formats and that all the embedded artwork is at a suitable resolution.

• The resolutions for TIFF figures at the estimated publication size must be: - for line figures (e.g. graphs) – 1200 dpi (6000 px for 1 column, 8400 px for 2 columns) - for figures with different shadings (e.g. bar charts) – 600 dpi (3000 px for 1 column, 4200 px for 2 columns) - for half tones (e.g. photographs) – 300 dpi (1500 px for 1 column, 2100 px for 2 columns)

• Images from the internet are unacceptable, as most of them have a resolution of only 72 dpi

• When your drawing/graphics application does not provide suitable ‘export’ options, please copy/paste or import the graphic into a Word document

• Integrity and Standards Any image produced by an instrument (e.g. scanner, microscopy…) with the objective of being used to derive quantitative results is considered as original data, and manuscripts that report images without any quantitative findings are not acceptable. Digitalization of an image converts the image into numerical values which can be analyzed like any other numerical value. The full information may prove important beyond what the author would like to show. Hence images submitted with a manuscript should be minimally processed; some image processing is acceptable (and may be unavoidable), but the final image must accurately represent the original data and exclude any misinterpretation of the information present in the original image. In case original data are being used just to illustrate a point, this should be accompanied by a very clear statement in the manuscript telling the reader this and explaining what is being demonstrated. Please refer to the Office of Research Integrity guidelines on image processing in scientific publication. Image Integrity and Standards directions

• Image acquisition: Equipment and conditions of image acquisition and processing must be detailed in the Material and Methods section. This includes the make and model of equipment, the acquisition and the image processing software, and the image treatment if any. If you export files from an acquisition device, make sure to use a format with no loss of information and do not file them into a higher resolution than that of acquisition. Authors have the responsibility to archive original images, with their metadata, in their original format without any compression or compressed without loss of information.

• Preparation of images for a manuscript: For guidance, we refer to the Journal of Cell Biology’s instructions to authors (http://jcb.rupress.org/site/misc/ifora.xhtml#image_aquisition) which states: 1) No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. 2) The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e., using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend. 3) Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to every pixel in the image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds. Non-linear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend. For further information, image examples, and more detailed guidance we advise reading What’s in a picture? The temptation of image manipulation (reprinted in the Journal of Cell Biology (2004) 166, 11-15).

• If a cropped image is included in the main text of a paper (e.g. a few lanes of a gel), display the full original image, including the appropriate controls, the molecular size ladder and/or the scale as relevant, as a single figure in a Supplementary Material file to facilitate peer-review and for subsequent on line publication.

• The statistical analysis applied to the quantitative data associated with images must clearly define the statistical unit considered (e.g. the animal, the sample…).

• Image screening prior to acceptance: All digital images from manuscripts nearing acceptance for publication will be screened for any evidence of improper manipulation or quality. If the original images cannot be supplied by authors on request, the journal reserves the right to reject the submission or to withdraw the published paper. Supplementary material Authors can include supplementary material in any type of text (research article, review article, short communication, etc.). Supplementary material will appear only in the electronic version. A link to this on-line supplementary material will be included by the Copy Editor at the proof preparation stage. Supplementary material will be peer-reviewed along with the rest of the manuscript. The main text of the article must stand alone without the supplementary material. Supplementary material should be presented according to the instructions for the main text. It will not be copy-edited and authors are entirely responsible for the presentation of the supplementary material. ANM September 2016 page 12 Supplementary material directions

• In the main text, supplementary material are referred to as: "Supplementary Table S1", "Supplementary Table S2", etc. for tables; "Supplementary Figure S1", "Supplementary Figure S2", etc. for figures; "Supplementary Material S1", "Supplementary Material S2", etc. for other material. For example: "The list of references used for the meta-analysis is given in Supplementary Material S1 and Supplementary Table S1 reports etc."

• Supplementary material is submitted along with the main manuscript in a separate file and identified at uploading as "Supplementary File – for Online Publication Only" • The title of the article and the list of authors are included at the top of the supplementary material

• No line numbering

• Single spacing • Unlike the figures included in the main text, each supplementary figure has its own title embedded below the figure Typographical conventions Title and headings As illustrated and detailed above and in the style sheet, the animal conventions apply to (a) Title of the paper, Authors’ names and addresses; (b) Main section headings such as Abstract, Implications, Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References; and (c) Subheadings which can be used at two levels only. Title and heading directions

• Title – use bold, with an initial capital for the first word only and for words that ordinarily take capitals

• Authors’ names – use lower case with initials in capitals (e.g. J. Doe)

• Authors' addresses – use italics

• Headings are left aligned with an initial capital for the first word only, and not numbered

• Main section headings – use bold with no full stop at the end; text follows on the next line (e.g. Abstract)

• Subheading (level 1) – use italics with no full stop at the end; text follows on the next line (e.g. Experimental design)

• Sub-subheading (level 2) – use italics and end with a full stop; text follows on the same line (e.g. Milk fatty acid composition. The fatty acid…) Abbreviations All non-standard abbreviations are defined at first use separately in the abstract and in the main text, they should be written in bold capitals at first occurrence. To facilitate the understanding of the manuscript, the number of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum (not more than 10 non-standard abbreviations is advised). Abbreviations in the short title or in (sub) headings are discouraged. Abbreviation directions

• Define abbreviations at first appearance in the abstract, and in the main text

• Authors should avoid excessive use of non-standard abbreviations (a maximum around 10 is advised)

• No author-defined abbreviation in the (short) titles, nor in (sub)headings

• Abbreviations used in tables/figures have to be defined either as footnotes or in the caption

• Do not start a sentence with an abbreviation.